TABLE 2

Studies finding a higher prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization with gram-negative organisms in people with alcohol use disorder

StudyPopulationFindings
Dao et al,32 2014613 men, rural VietnamKlebsiella pneumoniae was the most common gram-negative organism, isolated in the nasopharynx in 28%
K pneumoniae was found in 23% of light drinkers, 30% of moderate drinkers, and 34% of heavy drinkers
Weekly alcohol consumption was associated with K pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.04–2.8)
Mackowiak et al,31 1978124 people with AUD and 84 controls, Dallas, TXColonization with gram-negative bacilli in 35% of those with AUD vs 18% of controls
Of those with AUD who had gram-negative colonization, 33% had Enterobacter species and 23% had Escherichia coli
Fuxench-Lopez et al,33 197834 with AUD and 28 controls, Puerto RicoGram-negative colonization in 59% of those with AUD and 14% of controls
Among AUD samples, K pneumoniae accounted for 40% of the pharyngeal secretions and 76% of the isolates were in the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group of organisms
Golin et al,34 199858 with AUD and 59 controls, BrazilGram-negative organisms in 49% of those with AUD and 40% of controls
Anaerobic microbes were present in 85% of those with AUD vs 31% of controls
  • AUD = alcohol use disorder