Clinical and laboratory manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus

PathogenesisExamples of disease manifestations
Nonspecific inflammatory responseFever, fatigue, arthralgia, weight loss, anemia of chronic disease, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Immune complex deposition (commonly in the synovium, skin, serosa, kidneys, and lungs)Inflammatory arthritis, photosensitive skin rashes, pleurisy, pericarditis, glomerulonephritis, pneumonitis, or interstitial lung disease
Direct antibody-mediated attackHemolytic anemia (red cell antibodies), thrombocytopenia (antiplatelet antibodies), lymphopenia (lymphocytotoxic antibodies), neuropsychiatric manifestations such as depression and psychosis (antiribosomal P antibodies)
Associated featuresRecurrent thrombosis and miscarriages (antiphospholipid syndrome), dry eyes and mouth (Sjögren syndrome)
Laboratory cluesHemolytic anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, normal C-reactive protein, low complement (due to immune complex formation), and abnormal urinalysis (proteinuria, hematuria, red cell casts, or dysmorphic red cells)