Vaccine candidates in phase 3 or higher clinical trials

Developer (Vaccine name) Platform Vaccine type Doses Efficacy Regulatory status Clinical stage
United States
BioNTech-Pfizer (BNT162b2)RNAMessenger RNA expressing spike protein2 (0, 21 days)95%EUA in the US, EU, other countries. WHO EUL3
Moderna-NIAID (mRNA-1273)RNALNP encapsulated mNRA2 (0, 28 days)94.1%EUA in the US, EU, UK, other countries3
University of Oxford AstraZeneca (AZD1222)Viral vectorChAdOxnCoV-19 (non-replicating adenovirus)1-2 (0, 28 days)66.7%Emergency use in UK, EU, other countries. WHO EUL3
Johnson & Johnson-Janssen (JNJ-78436735)Viral vectorAd26COVS1 (non-replicating adenovirus)1-2 (0, 56 days)57%–72%EUA in the US3
Novavax (NVX-CoV2373)Protein subunitSpike protein plus Matrix-M2 (0, 21 days)49.4%–89.3%EUA submission planned for early 20213
Sanofi-GSKProtein subunitSpike protein (baculovirus production)2 (0, 21 days)Not availableStarted a phase 2 trial in February 20211/2
Other countries
CanSino China (Convidecia) ChinaViral vectorAd5 nCoV (non-replicating AdV5 expressing spike protein)1Not availableLimited use in China3
Sinopharm-Beijing (BBIBP-CorV) ChinaInactivatedInactivated virus2 (0, 21 days)79.3%–85%Approved in China, UAE, Bahrain; emergency use in Egypt, other countries3
Sinopharm-Wuhan ChinaInactivatedInactivated virus2 (0, 21 days)Not availableLimited use in China, UAE3
Sinovac (CoronaVac) ChinaInactivatedInactivated virus plus aluminum hydroxide2 (0, 14 days)50.4%–91.3%Approved in China; emergency use in Brazil, other countries3
Gamaleya (Sputinik V) RussiaViral vectorAdenovirus 26/52 (0, 21 days)91.6%Early use in Russia; emergency use in other countries3
Bharat Biotech (Covaxin) IndiaInactivatedWhole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine2 (0, 14 days)Not availableEmergency use in India3
  • EU = European Union; EUA = emergency use authorization; EUL = emergency use listing; GSK = GlaxoSmithKline; LPN = lipid nanoparticle-based; NIAID = National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease; UAE = United Arab Emirates; UK = United Kingdom; WHO = World Health Organization

  • Adapted from references 5,8