Types of diabetes and their features

TypeInsulin levelAuto-immuneGenetic featuresGlucose-lowering treatments
Type 2 diabetes mellitus8,10,14,36,37High, but decreases over timeNoMultiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but no single SNP specifically associated with diabetesMultiple Level of hyperglycemia and comorbid conditions guide decisions
 MODY1419,25VariableNoAutosomal-dominant and recessiveSulfonylureas for 2 genotypes (HNF4A, HNF1A); no medication for 1 genotype (GCK)
 Flatbush2628VariableNoUnknownInsulin, followed by therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus
 Lipo-dystrophy3941HighNoYes, for genetic typesInsulin, metformin, thiazolidinediones, metreleptin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus11LowYesYes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system- relatedInsulin
 LADA2934LowYesYes, HLA system- related and some novel genesInsulin
Secondary diabetes
 Cushing disease, acromegalyUsually high secondary to counterregulatory hormonesNoNoSee type 2 diabetes mellitus above
 Medication-relatedVariable; high with glucocorticoidsNoNoSee type 2 diabetes mellitus above
  • LADA = latent autoimmune diabetes in adults; MODY = maturity-onset diabetes of youth